Introduction Subject and Object

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Explanation of Subject and Object


S -Subject. S is the first part of a sentence, usually (not always). 
To find out S, pick out the V and ask what? or who? before V. 
The Sun shines hot.                   What shines?       The Sun = S
 My mother is kind.                    Who is kind?       My mother = S 

1.S = N The child is drinking milk
All the students attended the class.
Stars twinkle at night. 

2.S = Pronoun. She is my close friend.
I am a student. 
You may go now.
All of you must bring the textbook to the class. 

3.S = To+Vo
To smoke is injurious to your health. 
To get a first class requires hard work. 

4.S =V+ing 
Smoking is injurious to your health. 
Going to church regularly does not mean that you will go to 

5.S = wh + phrase (phrase = a group of words without any V or with an incomplete V (to + Vo, V+ing) 
Where to go was not known to anybody.
How to do the experiment was explained by the Professor. 

6.S = wh + clause (Clause = S + V + It contains a complete V) 
How Rajagopal got a first class remained a mystery. 
Why he resigned suddenly was not known to anybody. 

7.S = That + Clause 
That Monday would be a holiday was announced by the Principal. 
That Honesty is the Best Policy is a well-known Proverb.


Identify V and ask the question what? or whom? immediately after V.  
S+V...whom/ What ? = O
There are seven types of S. 


1. The Professor is teaching grammar. 
The Professor = S.    is teaching = V.   is teaching what ?   answer = grammar = O

2.The merchant sells foreign goods.
The merchant = S.    sells = V. sells what?     ans = foreign goods = O

3.The mad dog bit the small boy. 
The mad dog = S    bit = V.    bit whom ?     answer =  the small boys = O

4.The manager encourages the workers. 
The manager = S.    encourages =  V.    encourages whom? answer = the workers = O
All the seven categories that occur at S also occur at O.

5.O = N The students are planning to meet the Principal. 
The committee will study the unemployment problem. 

6.O = Pronoun (me, us, you, him, her, it, them) 
My mother advised me to do hard work. 
I am going to beat you.
The boy took a stone and threw it at the dog

7.O = to+VO 
I am learning to swim. 
My brother wants to dance. 

8.O= V+ing ' 
My sister likes singing. 
The government has banned smoking in public spaces. 

9.O = WH + phrase 
The travelers did not know where to go.
Sir,  please explain how to do the experiment. 

10.O= WH + clause 
The travelers did not know where they should go. 
Sir, please explain how we should do the experiment. 

11.O = that + clause 
The Principal announced that our team had won the match.
The workers said that they would finish the work in a week.


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