Textbook of Environmental Studies for Undergraduate Courses by Erach Bharucha pdf free Download


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Contents

PREFACE xiii
FOREWORD xv
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS xvi
UNIT 1: THE MULTIDISCIPLINARY NATURE OF ENVIRONMENTAL
STUDIES
1.1 DEFINITION, SCOPE AND IMPORTANCE 3
1.1.1 Definition 3
1.1.2 Scope 3
1.1.3 Importance 5
1.2 NEED FOR PUBLIC AWARENESS 8
1.2.1 Institutions in Environment 9
1.2.2 People in Environment 12
UNIT 2: NATURAL RESOURCES
2.1 INTRODUCTION 16
2.2 RENEWABLE AND NON-RENEWABLE RESOURCES 20
2.2.1 Natural resources and associated problems 20
2.2.2 Non-renewable resources 22
2.2.3 Renewable resources 22
a. Forest Resources: Use and over-exploitation, deforestation, case studies. Timber extraction, mining, dams and their effects on forests and tribal people. 23
b. Water Resources: Use and over-utilization of surface and ground water, floods, drought, conflicts over water, dams-benefits and problems.  26
c. Mineral Resources: Use and exploitation, environmental effects of extracting and using mineral resources, case studies. 30
d. Food Resources: World food problems, Changes in land use by agriculture and  grazing, Effects of modern agriculture, Fertilizer/ pesticide problems, Waterlogging and salinity32
e. Energy Resources: Increasing energy needs, Renewable/ non-renewable, Use of Alternate energy sources, Case studies  35

f. Land resources: Land as a resource, land degradation, man-induced land-slides, soil erosion and desertification.48

viii Environmental Studies for Undergraduate Courses
2.3 ROLE OF AN INDIVIDUAL IN CONSERVATION OF NATURAL RESOURCES 50
2.4 EQUITABLE USE OF RESOURCES FOR SUSTAINABLE LIFESTYLES 51
UNIT 3: ECOSYSTEMS
3.1 Concept of an ecosystem 54
3.1.1 Understanding ecosystems 55
3.1.2 Ecosystem degradation 55
3.1.3 Resource utilisation 56
3.2 Structure and functions of an ecosystem 56
3.3 Producers, consumers and decomposers 57
3.4 Energy flow in the ecosystem 58
3.4.1 The water cycle 58
3.4.2 The Carbon cycle 59
3.4.3 The Oxygen cycle 60
3.4.4 The Nitrogen cycle 60
3.4.5 The energy cycle 61
3.4.6 Integration of cycles in nature 62
3.5 Ecological succession 62
3.6 Food chains, Food webs and Ecological pyramids 62
3.6.1 The food chains 62
3.6.2 The food webs 63
3.6.3 The ecological pyramids 63
3.7 Introduction, Types, Characteristic features, Structure and functions 63
3.7.1 Forest ecosystem 65
3.7.2 Grassland ecosystem 70
3.7.3 Desert ecosystem 74
3.7.4 Aquatic ecosystems (ponds, lakes, streams, rivers, estuaries, oceans) 75

UNIT 4: BIODIVERSITY AND ITS CONSERVATION
4.1 INTRODUCTION – DEFINITION: GENETIC, SPECIES, ECOSYSTEM DIVERSITY 82
4.1.1 Genetic diversity 82
4.1.2 Species diversity 82
4.1.3 Ecosystem diversity 83
4.2 BIOGEOGRAPHIC CLASSIFICATION OF INDIA 84

Natural Resources ix
4.3 VALUE OF BIODIVERSITY: CONSUMPTIVE, PRODUCTIVE USE, SOCIAL, ETHICAL,
AESTHETIC AND OPTION VALUES 84
4.3.1Consumptive value 85
4.3.2 Productive value 86
4.3.3 Social value 86
4.3.4 Ethical value 88
4.3.5 Aesthetic value 88
4.3.6 Option value 88
4.4 BIODIVERSITY AT GLOBAL, NATIONAL AND LOCAL LEVELS 88
4.5 INDIA AS A MEGA DIVERSITY NATION 89
4.6 HOTSPOTS OF BIODIVERSITY 90
4.7 THREATS TO BIODIVERSITY: HABITAT LOSS, POACHING OF WILDLIFE,
MAN-WILDLIFE CONFLICTS 91
4.8 ENDANGERED AND ENDEMIC SPECIES OF INDIA 94
4.8.1 Common Plant species 94
4.8.2 Common Animal species 99
4.9 CONSERVATION OF BIODIVERSITY: IN-SITU AND EX-SITU 104
4.9.1 In-situ conservation 104
4.9.2 Ex-situ conservation 108

UNIT 5: ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION
5.1 DEFINITION 112
5.2 CAUSES, EFFECTS AND CONTROL MEASURES OF: 113
5.2.1 Air Pollution 113
5.2.2 Water Pollution 123
5.2.3 Soil Pollution 131
5.2.4 Marine Pollution 135
5.2.5 Noise Pollution 140
5.2.6 Thermal Pollution 142
5.2.7 Nuclear hazards 143
5.3 SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT: CAUSES, EFFECTS AND CONTROL MEASURES
OF URBAN AND INDUSTRIAL WASTE 145
5.4 ROLE OF INDIVIDUALS IN POLLUTION PREVENTION 150

x Environmental Studies for Undergraduate Courses
5.5 POLLUTION CASE STUDIES 153
5.6 DISASTER MANAGEMENT: FLOODS, EARTHQUAKES, CYCLONES, LANDSLIDES 156
UNIT 6: SOCIAL ISSUES AND THE ENVIRONMENT
6.1 FROM UNSUSTAINABLE TO SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT 165
6.2 URBAN PROBLEMS RELATED TO ENERGY 167
6.3 WATER CONSERVATION, RAIN WATER HARVESTING, WATERSHED
MANAGEMENT 168
6.3.1 Water conservation 168
6.3.2 Rain water harvesting 170
6.3.3 Watershed management 171
6.4 RESETTLEMENT AND REHABILITATION OF PEOPLE; ITS PROBLEMS
AND CONCERNS. CASE STUDIES 172
6.5 ENVIRONMENTAL ETHICS: ISSUES AND POSSIBLE SOLUTIONS 173
6.5.1 Resource consumption patterns and the need for their equitable utilisation 173
6.5.2 Equity – Disparity in the Northern and Southern countries 175
6.5.3 Urban – rural equity issues 175
6.5.4 The need for Gender Equity 175
6.5.5 Preserving resources for future generations 176
6.5.6 The rights of animals 177
6.5.7 The ethical basis of environment education and awareness 178
6.5.8 The conservation ethic and traditional value systems of India 181
6.6 CLIMATE CHANGE, GLOBAL WARMING, ACID RAIN, OZONE LAYER DEPLETION,
NUCLEAR ACCIDENTS AND NUCLEAR HOLOCAUST. CASE STUDIES 182
6.6.1 Climate change 182
6.6.2 Global warming 183
6.6.3 Acid rain 184
6.6.4 Ozone layer depletion 185
6.6.5 Nuclear Accidents and Nuclear Holocaust 186
6.7 WASTELAND RECLAMATION 187
6.8 CONSUMERISM AND WASTE PRODUCTS 189
6.9 ENVIRONMENT PROTECTION ACT 193
6.10 AIR (PREVENTION AND CONTROL OF POLLUTION) ACT 194
6.11 WATER (PREVENTION AND CONTROL OF POLLUTION) ACT 196

Natural Resources xi
6.12 WILDLIFE PROTECTION ACT 197
6.13 FOREST CONSERVATION ACT 199
6.14 ISSUES INVOLVED IN ENFORCEMENT OF ENVIRONMENTAL LEGISLATION 201
6.14.1Environment Impact Assessment (EIA) 201
6.14.2 Citizens actions and action groups 202
6.15 PUBLIC AWARENESS 204
6.15.1 Using an Environmental Calendar of Activities 204
6.15.2 What can I do? 205

UNIT 7: HUMAN POPULATION AND THE ENVIRONMENT
7.1 POPULATION GROWTH, VARIATION AMONG NATIONS 214
7.1.1 Global population growth 214
7.2 POPULATION EXPLOSION – FAMILY WELFARE PROGRAM 215
7.2.1 Methods of sterilization 217
7.1.2 Urbanization 217
7.3 ENVIRONMENTAL AND HUMAN HEALTH 220
7.3.1 Environmental health 221
7.3.2 Climate and health 223
7.3.3 Infectious diseases 224
7.3.4 Water-related diseases 227
7.3.5 Risks due to chemicals in food 231
7.3.6 Cancer and environment 232
7.4 HUMAN RIGHTS 233
7.4.1 Equity 233
7.4.2 Nutrition, health and human rights 234
7.4.3 Intellectual Property Rights and Community Biodiversity Registers 235
7.5 VALUE EDUCATION 236
7.5.1 Environmental Values 237
7.5.2 Valuing Nature 240
7.5.3 Valuing cultures 241
7.5.4 Social justice 241
7.5.5 Human heritage 242
7.5.6 Equitable use of Resources 242
7.5.7 Common Property Resources 242
7.5.8 Ecological degradation 242
7.6 HIV/AIDS 243
7.7 WOMEN AND CHILD WELFARE 244
7.8 ROLE OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY IN ENVIRONMENT AND HUMAN HEALTH 247

UNIT 8: FIELD WORK
8.1 VISIT TO A LOCAL AREA TO DOCUMENT ENVIRONMENTAL ASSETS,
RIVER/FOREST/GRASSLANDS/HILL/MOUNTAIN 250
8.2 VISIT TO A LOCAL POLLUTED SITE 262
8.3 STUDY OF COMMON PLANTS, INSECTS, BIRDS 268

8.4 STUDY OF SIMPLE ECOSYSTEMS 270

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Aspirants Notes Exam Prep: Banking, IAS, SSC, TNPSC, RRB, Entrance Exam: Textbook of Environmental Studies for Undergraduate Courses by Erach Bharucha pdf free Download
Textbook of Environmental Studies for Undergraduate Courses by Erach Bharucha pdf free Download
Textbook of Environmental Studies for Undergraduate Courses by Erach Bharucha pdf free Download
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