Questions on the Biography For TNPSC Group 1, 2, 2a, 4, VAO Exams

Questions on the Biography For TNPSC Group 1, 2, 2a, 4, VAO Exams

1.Name: Mahatma Gandhi

Date of Birth: 2 October 1869, Porbandar, India
Date of Death30 January 1948, Delhi, India (assassination)
Key Points :
  • Ghandhiji wrote his autobiography “M y Experiments with truth”. He is also the author magazine “Indian Opinion” (in South Africa), Young India and Harijan (In India).
  • The railway station at Pietermaritzburg, South Africa is named in his honor (Mahatma Gandhi Station) because it was here that in 1891 he was unceremoniously thrown out of a first class train compartment just for being a colored person. This was his first experience of racism and became a turning point in his life.
  • In 1894, Gandhi founded the Natal Indian Congress.
  •  In 1906 Gandhi, for the first time, organized a non-violent resistance against the Transvaal government’s registration act.
  • On New Year’s Eve, December 31, 1929, the Indian National Congress unfurled it’s flag of independence.
  • Gandhi and Jawaharlal Nehru issued the Declaration of Independence on January 26, 1930.
  • From March 12 to April 6, 1930, Gandhi made the famous Satyagraha (“Satya” – truth, “Agraha” – persuasion), The Salt March to Dandi.

2.Name: Jawaharlal Nehru
Famous As: Freedom fighter, Politician, A visionary for independent India
Date of Birth: 14 November 1889, Allahabad, India
Date of Death: 27 May 1964, New Delhi, India (stroke)
Key Points :
  •  His birthday (November 14) is celebrated as ‘Children’s Day’ in India.
  • In prison he wrote “Glimpses of World History”, a widely-read book.
  • In 1920 he joined the Non-co-operation Movement started by Gandhiji.
  • In 1942 he also joined Gandhiji’s Quit India Movement
  • Jawaharlal Nehru became the first Prime Minister of India.
  • It was under Nehru’s supervision that India launched its first Five-Year Plan in 1951
  • He wrote such famous books as “Autobiography”, “the Discovery of India” and “Glimpses of World History”.
  • Nehru passed away on 27th May 1964. His death was mourned by the world

3. Name: Subash Chandra Bose
Famous As: Freedom fighter, Founder of Indian National Army
Born: January 23, 1897
Death: Not known

Key Points
  • His father named Rai Bahadur Janakinath Bosewas a Government pleader working there.
  • In his childhood, the influ­ence of his mother Probhavati Devi and that of the Headmaster named Beni Madhav Das taught him to learn about the ancient heritage of his motherland and to love India more than anything else in his life.
  • In Berlin, he formed the first Indian National Army (I.N.A.) with the ‘prisoners of war’ who were Indian soldiers serving the British Army.
  • Subash also founded an Indian Radio Station called Azad Hind Radio in Berlin.
  • The I.N.A. fought tooth and nail in the Burma front, and hoisted Indian national flag in Impala at Manipur.

4. Name: Helen Keller
Famous as: Writer, Member of Socialist Party of America, Campaigner of socialism, women’s suffrage and several leftist social causes 
Nationality: American 
Born on: 27 June 1880 
Born in: Tuscumbia 
Died on: 01 June 1968

Key Points:
  • Helen had found her instructor in Perkins’ former student Anne Sullivan (who was visually impaired for 20 years) who was personally referred by Michael Anaganos, Perkins’ director.
  • From May 1888 Helen started attending Perkins Institute for the Blind.  In 1904 Keller received her graduation from Radcliffe College at the age of 24. With this Helen became the first deaf and blind person ever to earn a Bachelor of Arts degree.
  • Helen played an integral role in promoting birth control, suffrage and was a pacifist in ideas.
  • In 1912 Keller joined the Industrial Workers of the World (known as the IWW or the Wobbles).
  • In 1915 she found the Helen Keller International (HKI) organization along with George Kessler which devoted its work and research in the areas of vision, health and nutrition. In 1920 Helen greatly helped founding the American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU).
  • Helen writes when she was eleven years old The Frost King (1891). Keller was 22 years old when her autobiography, “The Story of My Life” was published in 1903 which received help from Sullivan and Sullivan’s husband, John Macy. In 1908 Keller wrote “The World I Live In” which talked about her feelings of the world she felt living inside. In 1913 a series of essays on socialism, “Out of the Dark” was published. In 1927 Keller’s spiritual autobiography “My Religion” was published.
  • On September 14, 1964, President Lyndon B. Johnson awarded her with the prestigious Presidential Medal of Freedom which is regarded as one of the United States’ highest two civilian honours.

5. Name: Kalpana Chawala (std11 -Bon Voyage)
Born On: July 1st, 1961 
Born In: Karnal in Haryana, India. 
Died On: February 1st, 2003 
Famous as: Astronaut. 

Key Points
  • She graduated from Tagore school, Karnal, in 1976. She went on to pursue her Bachelor of Science Degree in Aeronautical engineering through Punjab Engineering College.
  • Kalpana Chawla was India’s first women aeronautical engineer to travel into space.
  • She got married to Jean-Pierre Harrison in 1983. He was her flying instructor and an aviation author.
  • In 1984, she completed her M.S. in Aerospace Engineering from the University of Texas in Arlington. In 1988, she obtained a Ph.D. in the same subject from the University of Colorado at Boulder.
  • she got a job in NASA as the Vice President of the Overset Methods, Inc. in 1993.
  • In 1998 she was selected for her first mission i.e. to travel around the Earth in a space shuttle.
  • In 2000, she was again assigned on her second flight mission as a part of Flight STS-107
  • It was on February 1st 2003 that the space shuttle, STS-107, collapsed over the Texas region when it re-entered the Earth’s atmosphere.
  • During her lifetime, Kalpana Chawla was awarded with three awards namely the Congressional Space Medal of Honor, NASA Space Flight Medal and the NASA Distinguished Service Medal.

6. Name: Dr. Salim Ali (std 9 – Our Winged Friends) 
Born On: November 12, 1896 
Born In: Mumbai, Maharashtra 
Died On: July 27, 1987 
Famous as: Ornithologist, Naturalist, Birdman of India

 Key Points

  • He was fondly known as the “grand old man of Indian ornithology”.
  • Since childhood, Salim Ali gained an interest in observing birds closely and had a hobby of shooting birds with his toy air gun. With the help of W.S. Millard, secretary of Bombay Natural History Society (BNHS), the bird was identified as Yellow-throated Sparrow, which further increased his seriousness towards ornithology.
  • He studied commercial law and accountancy from Davar’s College of Commerce. He used to attend morning classes at Davar’s College and go to St. Xavier’s College to attend zoology classes to complete his course in zoology.
  • Besides the national and international bird books, Ali also authored several regional field guides, like “The Birds of Kerala” (first edition was titled “The Birds of Travancore and cochin” in 1953), “The Birds of Sikkim”, “The Birds of Kutch” (later renamed as “The Birds of Gujarat”), “Indian Hill Birds”, “Field Guide to the Birds of Eastern Himalayas”.
  • He penned his autobiography “The Fall of a Sparrow” in 1985 where he included his vision for BNHS and the importance of conservation related activities.
  • He was bestowed with honorary doctorate degrees from Aligarh Muslim University in 1958, Delhi University in 1973, and Andhra University in 1978. On receiving the Gold Medal from the British Ornithologists’ Union in 1967, Salim Ali became the first non-British citizen to be bequeathed with such an honor.

7.Name: Rani of Jhansi
Born: 19 November 1828, Varanasi
Died: 18 June 1858, Gwalior
Full name: Manikarnika
Nickname: Manu

Key Points 
  • Rani Lakshmi Bai was the queen of the princely state of Jhansi, which is located on the northern side of India. She was one of the most leading personalities of the first war of India’s independence that started in 1857. In this article, we will present you with the biography of Rani Lakshmibai, who was an epitome of bravery and courage.
  • She is referred to as the ‘Icon of the Indian Nationalist Movement’.

8. Nelson Mandela 
Famous as: Anti-Apartheid Activist, President of ANC and Former President of South Africa Born on: 18 July 1918 , Mvezo
Died: 5 December 2013

Key Points
  • He graduated in absentia at a ceremony in Cape Town. Nelson Mandela, while increasingly politically involved from 1942, only joined the African National Congress in 1944 when he helped formed the ANC Youth League.
  • Facing the death penalty his words to the court at the end of his famous ‘Speech from the Dock’ on 20 April 1964 became immortalized
  • I have fought against white domination, and I have fought against black domination. I have cherished the ideal of a democratic and free society in which all persons live together in harmony and with equal opportunities. It is an ideal which I hope to live for and to achieve. But if needs be, it is an ideal for which I am prepared to die.”

9.Abraham Lincoln Also refer: std 9 – one minute apology 
Famous As: Leader of American civil war, American President 
Born on: Feb 12, 1809

Died: April 15th.

    Key Points
    • Lincoln was born in Hardin County, Kentucky on February 12, 1809. He moved to Indiana in 1816 and lived there the rest of his youth.
    • In 1832, Lincoln enlisted to fight in the Black Hawk War. He was quickly elected to be the captain of a company of volunteers.
    • Lincoln was nominated for the presidency by the Republican Party with Hannibal Hamlin as his running mate. He ran on a platform denouncing disunion and calling for an end to slavery in the territories.
    • On April 14, 1865, Lincoln was assassinated while attending a play at Ford’s Theatre in Washington, D.C.Actor John Wilkes Booth shot him in the back of the head before jumping onto the stage and escaping to Maryland. Lincoln died on April 15th. On April 26th, Booth was found hiding in a barn which was set on fire. He was then shot and killed. Eight conspirators were punished for their roles.
    • The main event of Lincoln’s presidency was the Civil War that lasted from 1861-65. Eleven states seceded from the Union, and Lincoln firmly believed in the importance of not only defeating the Confederation but eventually reuniting North and South. 

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